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Pesticides And Toxic Substances (H7506C)

United States Environmental Protection Agency
4th edition
November 1991
Knowing Your Options
Tips for Handling Pesticides
Determining Correct Dosage
Correct Storage and Disposal
How to Choose a Pest Control Company
How to Reduce Your Exposure to Pesticides
"Someone's Been Poisoned, Help"
Knowing Your Options
THEY'RE THERE. Whether you see them or not, you know they're
there--in your home, your vegetable garden, your lawn, your fruit and
shade trees, your flowers, and on your pets. They are pests--insects,
weeds, fungi, rodents, and others.
American households and their surrounding grounds are frequent
hosts to common structural pests (termites, cockroaches, fleas,
rodents), as well as a wide array of pests that are usually associated
with agriculture. Because pests are all around--sometimes creating a
nuisance but sometimes causing severe financial loss--consumers have
turned increasingly to pesticides to control them. Just as "pests" can
be anything from cockroaches in your kitchen to algae in your swimming
pool, pesticides include insecticides, herbicides, fungicides,
rodenticides, disinfectants, and plant growth regulators--anything that
kills or otherwise controls a pest of any kind.
The first and most important step in pest control is to identify
the pest. Some pests, or signs of them, are unmistakable. Others are
not. For example, some plant "diseases" are really indications of
insufficient soil nutrients.
Three information sources are particularly helpful in identifying
pests and appropriate pest control methods: reference books (such as
insect field guides or gardening books), the County Extension Service,
and pesticide dealers.
The next step is to decide what level of treatment you want. Is
anyone in the family or neighborhood particularly sensitive to chemical
pesticides? Does your lawn really need to be totally weed-free? Do you
need every fruit, vegetable, or flower you grow, or could you replace
certain pest-prone species or varieties with hardier substitutes? Will
you accept some blemished produce? In other words, do you need to
eliminate all weeds and insects, or can you tolerate some pests?
Remember that total pest elimination is virtually impossible, and
trying to eradicate pests from your premises will lead you to more
extensive, repeated chemical treatments than are required for pest
control. Remember, too, that to manage any pest effectively, you must
use each method (or combination of methods) correctly. Finally, you must
also abide by all pertinent local, state, and federal regulations.
Federal Registration of Pesticides
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) "registers" (licenses)
thousands of pesticide products for use in and around homes. No
pesticide may legally be sold or used in the United States unless its
label bears an EPA registration number. The Federal Insecticide,
Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIRA), which governs the registration of
pesticides, prohibits the use of any pesticide product in a manner that
is inconsistent with the product labeling.
There is another important question to ask in making pest control
decisions: is there something on your premises that needlessly invites
pest infestations? The answer to this question may lead you to take some
common-sense steps to modify pest habitat.
* Remove water sources. All pests, vertebrate or invertebrate, need
water for survival. Fix leaky plumbing and do not let water
accumulate anywhere in your home. This means no water in trays
under your houseplants overnight if you have a cockroach
* Remove food sources (if the pest's food is anything other than the
plant or animal you are trying to protect). For example, this could
mean storing your food in sealed glass or plastic containers,
avoiding the habit of leaving your pet's food out for extended
periods of time, and placing your refuse in tightly covered,
heavy-gauge garbage cans.
* Remove or destroy pest shelter. Caulk cracks and crevices to
control cockroaches; remove piles of wood from under or around your
home in order to avoid attracting termites;
* Remove and destroy diseased plants, tree prunings, and fallen fruit
that might harbor pests.
* Remove breeding sites. The presence of pet manure attracts flies,
litter encourages rodents, and standing water provides a perfect
breeding place for mosquitoes.
* Remove sources of preventable stress to plants (flowers, trees,
vegetable plants, and turf). Plant at the optimum time of year. Use
mulch to reduce weed competition and maintain even soil temperature
and moisture. Provide adequate water.
[Graphic Omitted]
* Use preventive cultural practices, such as careful selection of
disease-resistant seed or plant varieties, companion planting to
exploit the insect-repellent properties of certain plants,
strategic use of "trap" crops to lure pests away from crops you
wish to protect, crop rotation and diversification, and optimum use
of spacing. Make sure you have good drainage and soil aeration.
Non-chemical Controls
If you practice preventive techniques such as those mentioned
above, you will reduce your chances, or frequency, of pest infestation.
However, if you already have an infestation, are there any pest control
alternatives besides chemical pesticides?
The answer is an emphatic "yes." One or a combination of several
non-chemical treatment alternatives may be appropriate. Your best
strategy depends on the pest and the site where the pest occurs.
Non-chemical alternatives include:
* Biological treatments, including predators such as purple martins,
praying mantises, and lady bugs; parasites; and pathogens such as
bacteria, viruses (generally not available to homeowners), and
other microorganisms like Bacillus thuringiensis and milky spore
There is no way to be certain how long predators will stay in
target areas. Contact your County Extension Service for information
about how to protect desirable predators.
* Mechanical treatments, including cultivating to control weeds,
hand-picking weeds from turf and pests from plants, trapping to
control rodents and some insects, and screening living space to
limit mosquito and fly access.
Non-chemical pest control methods really work. They do have some
disadvantages: the results are not immediate, and it requires some
work to make a home or garden less attractive to pests. But the
advantages of non-chemical methods are many. Compared to chemical
pesticide treatments, such methods are generally effective for
longer periods of time. They do not create hardy,
pesticide-resistant pest populations. And they can be used without
safeguards, because they pose virtually no hazards to human health
or the environment.
[Graphic Omitted]
[Graphic Omitted]
Chemical Controls
If you decide that chemical treatment can provide the best solution
to your pest problem, and you want to control the pests yourself rather
than turning the problem over to a professional pest control operator,
then you have an important decision to make: which product to choose.
Before making that decision, learn as much as you can about a product's
active ingredient--its biologically active agent. Is it "broad-spectrum"
in its mode of action (effective against a broad range of pests), or is
it "selective" (effective against only a few pest species)? How rapidly
does the active ingredient break down once it is introduced into the
environment? Is it suspected of causing chronic health effects? Is it
toxic to non-target wildlife and house pets? Is it known, or suspected,
to leach through soil into ground water?
Here again, your County Extension Service, reference books,
pesticide dealers, your state pesticide agency, or your regional EPA
office may be able to provide assistance. (Lists of State and EPA
pesticide contacts are provided at the end of this booklet.)
When you have narrowed your choices of active ingredients, you are
ready to select a pesticide product. Choose the least toxic pesticide
that can achieve the results you desire. Read the label. It lists active
ingredients, the target pests (for example, mites, flies, Japanese
beetle grubs, broad-leafed weeds, algae, etc.), and the sites where the
product may be used (for example, lawns, specific vegetable crops,
roses, swimming pools, etc.). Be sure the site of your pest problem is
included among the sites listed on the label.
Pesticide active ingredients are formulated in many ways. Choose
the formulation best suited to your site and the pest you are trying to
control. The most common types of home-use pesticide formulations
* Solutions, which contain the active ingredient and one or more
additives, and readily mix with water.
* Aerosols, which contain one or more active ingredients and a
solvent. They are ready for immediate use as is.
* Dusts, which contain active ingredients plus a very fine dry inert
carrier such as clay, talc, or volcanic ash. Dusts are ready for
immediate use and are applied dry.
* Granulars, which are similar to dusts, but with larger and heavier
particles for broadcast applications.
* Baits, which are active ingredients mixed with food or other
substances to attract the pest.
* Wettable powders, which are dry, finely ground formulations that
generally are mixed with water for spray application. Some also may
be used as dusts.
[Graphic Omitted]
Depending on the type of formulation you choose, you may need to
dilute or mix the product. Prepare only the amount that you need for
each application; don't prepare larger amounts to store for possible
future use. (See "Determining Correct Dosage.")
Once you have identified the pest, selected the right pesticide,
and determined proper dosage, you are ready to use the product.
Application technique and timing are every bit as important as the
material used, so read the label for directions. That advice--to read
the label--is repeated so often in this guide that it may become
tiresome. But in fact, the advice cannot be repeated often enough. Read
the label before you buy a product, and again before you mix it, before
you apply it, before you store it, and before you throw it away. The
directions on a label are there for a very good reason: to help you
achieve maximum benefits with minimum risk. But these benefits depend
upon proper use of the products.
Chemical pesticides also have their disadvantages. They must be
used very carefully to achieve results while protecting users and the
environment. The results are generally temporary, and repeated
treatments may be required.
Therefore, to achieve best results when you do use chemical
pesticides, use preventive and non-chemical treatments along with them.
This will reduce the need for repeated applications.
You should always evaluate your pesticide use, comparing
pre-treatment and post-treatment conditions. You should weigh the
benefits of short-term chemical pesticide control against the benefits
of long-term control using a variety of techniques. Knowledge of a range
of pest control techniques gives you the ability to pick and choose
among them. Pests, unfortunately, will always be around us, and, if you
know about all pest control options, you will know what to do the next
Tips for Handling Pesticides
[Graphic Omitted]
Pesticides are not "safe." They are produced specifically because
they are toxic to something. By heeding all the following tips, you can
reduce your risks when you use pesticides.
* All pesticides legally marketed in the United States must bear an
EPA-approved label; check the label to make sure it bears an EPA
registration number.
* Before using a pesticide, read the entire label. Even if you have
used the pesticide before, read the label again--don't trust your
memory. Use of any pesticide in any way that is not consistent with
label directions and precautions is subject to civil and/or
criminal penalties.
* Do not use a "restricted use" pesticide unless you are a formally
trained, certified pesticide applicator. These products are too
dangerous to be used without special training.
* Follow use directions carefully. Use only the amount directed, at
the time and under the conditions specified, and for the purpose
listed. Don't think that twice the dosage will do twice the job. It
won't. What's worse, you may harm yourself, others, or whatever you
are trying to protect.
* Look for one of the following signal words on the front of the
label. It will tell you how hazardous a pesticide is if swallowed,
inhaled, or absorbed through skin.
"DANGER" means highly poisonous;
"WARNING" means moderately hazardous;
"CAUTION" means least hazardous.
* Wear the items of protective clothing the label requires: for
example, long sleeves and long pants, impervious gloves, rubber
(not canvas or leather) footwear, hat, and goggles. Personal
protective clothing usually is available at home building supply
* If you must mix or dilute the pesticide, do so outdoors or in a
well-ventilated area. Mix only the amount you need and use portions
listed on the label.
* Keep children and pets away from areas where you mix or apply
* If a spill occurs, clean it up promptly. Don't wash it away.
Instead, sprinkle with sawdust, vermiculite, or kitty litter; sweep
into a plastic garbage bag; and dispose with the rest of your
* Remove pets (including birds and fish) and toys from the area to be
treated. Remove food, dishes, pots, and pans before treating
kitchen cabinets, and don't let pesticides get on these surfaces.
Wait until shelves dry before refilling them.
* Allow adequate ventilation when applying pesticides indoors. Go
away from treated areas for at least the length of time prescribed
by the label. When spraying outdoors, close the windows of your
* Most surface sprays should be applied only to limited areas; don't
treat entire floors, walls, or ceilings.
* Never place rodent or insect baits where small children or pets can
reach them.
* When applying spray or dust outdoors, cover fish ponds, and avoid
applying pesticides near wells. Always avoid over-application when
treating lawn, shrubs, or gardens. Runoff or seepage from excess
pesticide usage may contaminate water supplies. Excess spray may
leave harmful residues on home-grown produce.
[Graphic Omitted]
* Keep herbicides away from non-target plants. Avoid applying any
pesticide to blooming plants, especially if you see honeybees or
other pollinating insects around them. Avoid birds' nests when
spraying trees.
* Never spray or dust outdoors on a windy day.
* Never smoke while applying pesticides. You could easily carry
traces of the pesticide from hand to mouth. Also, some products are
* Never transfer pesticides to containers not intended for them, such
as empty soft drink bottles. Keep pesticides in containers that
clearly and prominently identify the contents. Properly refasten
all childproof caps.
* Shower and shampoo thoroughly after using a pesticide product. Wash
the clothing that you wore when applying the product separately
from the family laundry. To prevent tracking chemicals inside, also
rinse boots and shoes before entering your home.
* Before using a pesticide product, know what to do in case of
accidental poisoning.
* To remove residues, use a bucket to triple rinse tools or
equipment, including any containers or utensils used to mix the
chemicals. Then pour the rinse water into the pesticide container
and reuse the solution by applying it according to the pesticide
product label directions.
* Evaluate the results of your pesticide use.
Determining Correct Dosage
So much information is packed onto pesticide labels that there is
usually no room to include examples of each dilution applicable to the
multitude of home-use situations. As a result, label examples may
inadvertently encourage preparation of more pesticide than is needed.
The excess may contribute to overuse, safety problems related to storage
and disposal, or simply wasted costs of unused pesticide.
Determining the correct dosage for different types of pesticides
requires some simple calculations. The following information can help
you to prepare the minimum quantity of pesticide needed for your
immediate use situation.
For example, the product label says, "For the control of aphids on
tomatoes, mix 8 fluid ounces of pesticide into 1 gallon water and spray
until foliage is wet." Your experience has been that your six tomato
plants require only one quart of pesticide to wet all the foliage.
Therefore, only 2 fluid ounces of the pesticide should be mixed into 1
quart of water. Why? Because a quart is one-fourth of a gallon, and 2
fluid ounces mixed into 1 quart make the same strength spray recommended
by the label, but in a quantity that can be used up all at once.
Consumers can solve problems similar to this one with careful
arithmetic, good measurements, and intelligent use of the information
provided here.
How to Measure
If you need to determine the size of a square or rectangular area,
such as a lawn for herbicide application, measure and multiply the
length and width. For example, an area 10 feet long by 8 feet wide
contains 80 square feet. Common area measurements may involve square
yards (1 square yard = 9 square feet) or square feet (1 square foot =
144 square inches).
If you need to determine the volume of a space such as a room,
measure and multiply the room's length, width, and height. For example,
a space 10 feet long, 8 feet wide, and 8 feet high contains a volume of
640 cubic feet. You would use this procedure, for instance, for an
aerosol release to control cockroaches.
Most residential-use pesticides are measured in terms of volume.
Some common equivalents are:
1 gallon (gal.) = 128 fluid ounces (ft. oz.)
= 4 quarts (qt.)
= 8 pints (pt.)
= 16 cups
1 qt. = 32 ft. oz.
= 2 pt.
= 4 cups
1 pt. = 16 ft. oz.
= 2 cups
1 cup = 8 ft. oz.
1 tablespoon = 1/2 fl. oz.
= 3 teaspoons
1 teaspoon = 1/8 ft. oz.
In measuring teaspoons or tablespoons of pesticide, use only level
spoonfuls, and never use the same measuring devices for food
The following table provides examples to help you convert label
information to your specific use situations. "Amount" can be any measure
of pesticide quantity. However, the same unit of measure must be used on
both sides of the chart. For example, 8 fluid ounces per gallon of water
is equivalent to 2 fluid ounces per quart of water.
Not all dosage rates are included in the examples given here. For
rates not included, remember that, for pesticides not diluted with
water, proportionally change both the quantity of pesticide and the
area, volume, or number of items treated. For example, one-half pound
per 1,000 square feet is equivalent to one-quarter pound per 500 square
feet. For a pesticide that is diluted with water, proportionally change
the quantity of pesticide, the quantity of water, and the area, volume,
or number of items treated. For example, one-half pound of pesticide in
1 gallon of water applied to 1,000 square feet is equivalent to 1 pound
of pesticide in 2 gallons of water applied to 2,000 square feet.
There is a point at which measurements needed for smaller
quantities of pesticides are too minute to be accurately measured with
typical domestic measuring devices. In such cases, the user can either
mix the larger volume, realizing that there will be leftover material;
obtain a more accurate measuring device, such as a graduated cylinder or
a scale which measures small weights; or search for an alternative
pesticide or less concentrated formulation of the same pesticide.
[Graphic Omitted]
Correct Storage and Disposal
The following tips on home storage and disposal can help you handle
pesticides correctly.
* Buy only enough product to carry you through the use season, to
reduce storage problems.
* Store pesticides away from children and pets. A locked cabinet in a
well-ventilated utility area or garden shed is best.
* Store flammable liquids outside living quarters and away from an
ignition source.
* Never put pesticides in cabinets with, or near, food, medical
supplies, or cleaning materials. Always store pesticides in their
original containers, complete with labels that list ingredients,
directions for use, and antidotes in case of accidental poisoning.
Never transfer pesticides to soft drink bottles or other containers
that children may associate with something to eat or drink. Always
properly refasten child-proof closures or lids.
* Avoid storing pesticides in places where flooding is possible, or
in open places where they might spill or leak into the environment.
If you have any doubt about the content of a container, dispose of
it with your trash.
* The best way to dispose of a small, excess amount of pesticide is
to use it--apply it--according to directions on the product label.
If you cannot use it, ask your neighbor whether he/she can use it.
If all the pesticide cannot be used, first check with your local
health department or solid waste management agency to determine
whether your community has a household hazardous waste collection
program or any other program for handling disposal of pesticides.
[Graphic Omitted]
* If no community programs exist, follow label directions regarding
container disposal. To dispose of less than a full container of a
liquid pesticide, leave it in the original container, with the cap
securely in place to prevent spills or leaks. Wrap the container in
several layers of newspapers and tie securely. Then place the
package in a covered trash can for routine collection with
municipal refuse. If you do not have a regular trash collection
service, take the package to a permitted landfill (unless your
municipality has other requirements).
Note: No more than one gallon of liquid pesticide should be
disposed of in this manner.
* Wrap individual packages of dry pesticide formulations in several
layers of newspaper, or place the package in a tight carton or bag,
and tape or tie it closed. As with liquid formulations, place the
package in a covered trash can for routine collection.
Note: No more than 5 pounds of pesticide at a time should be
disposed of in this manner.
* Do not pour leftover pesticides down the sink or into the toilet.
Chemicals in pesticides could interfere with the operation of
wastewater treatment systems or could pollute waterways, because
many municipal systems cannot remove all pesticide residues.
* An empty pesticide container can be as hazardous as a full one
because of residues remaining inside. Never reuse such a container.
When empty, a pesticide container should be carefully rinsed and
thoroughly drained. Liquids used to rinse the container should be
added to the sprayer or to the container previously used to mix the
pesticide and used according to label directions.
Empty product containers made of plastic or metal should be
punctured to prevent reuse. (Do not puncture or burn a pressurized
product container--it could explode.) Glass containers should be
rinsed and drained, as described above, and the cap or closure
replaced securely. After rinsing, an empty mixing container or
sprayer may also be wrapped and placed in the trash.
* If you have any doubts about proper pesticide disposal, contact
your state or local health department, your solid waste management
agency, or the regional EPA office.
How to Choose a Pest Control Company
Termites are chomping away at your house. Roaches are taking over
your kitchen. Mouse droppings dot your dresser drawer. You've got a pest
control problem, and you've decided that it's too serious for you to
solve on your own. You've decided you need a professional exterminator.
If you find yourself in a situation like this, what can you do to
be sure that the pest control company you hire will do a good job? Here
are some questions you can ask:
1. Does the company have a good track record?
Don't rely on the company salesman to answer this question;
research the answer yourself. Ask around among neighbors and
friends; have any of them dealt with the company before? Were they
satisfied with the service they received? Call the Better Business
Bureau or local consumer office; have they received any complaints
about the company?
2. Does the company have insurance? What kind of insurance? Can the
salesman show some documentation to prove that the company is insured?
Contractor's general liability insurance, including insurance for
sudden and accidental pollution, gives you as a homeowner a certain
degree of protection should an accident occur while pesticides are
being applied in your home. Contractor's workmen's compensation
insurance can also help protect you should an employee of the
contractor be injured while working in your home.
In most states, pest control companies are not required to buy
insurance, but you should think twice before dealing with a company
that is uninsured.
3. Is the company licensed?
Regulatory agencies in some states issue state pest control
licenses. Although the qualifications for a license vary from state
to state, at a minimum the license requires that each company have
a certified pesticide applicator present in the office on a daily
basis to supervise the work of exterminators using restricted-use
pesticides. (Certified applicators are formally trained and
"certified" as qualified to use or supervise the use of pesticides
that are classified for restricted use.) If restricted-use
pesticides are to be applied on your premises, make sure the pest
control operator's license is current. Also ask if the company's
employees are bonded.
You may want to contact your state lead pesticide agency to ask
about its pesticide certification and training programs and to
inquire if periodic recertification is required for pest control
In addition to the licenses required in some states, some cities
also issue pest control licenses. Again, qualifications vary, but
possession of a city license--where they are available--is one more
assurance that the company you are dealing with is reputable and
4. Is the company affiliated with a professional pest control
Professional associations--whether national, state, or local--keep
members informed of new developments in pest control methods,
safety, training, research, and regulation. They also have codes of
ethics that members agree to abide by. The fact that a company,
small or large, chooses to affiliate itself with a professional
association signals its concern for the quality of its work.
5. Does the company stand behind its work? What assurances does the
company make?
You should think twice about dealing with a company unwilling to
stand behind its work. Be sure to find out what you must do to keep
your part of the bargain. For example, in the case of termite
control treatments, a guarantee may be invalidated if structural
alterations are made without prior notice to the pest control
6. Is the company willing, and able, to discuss the treatment proposed
for your home?
Selecting a pest control service is just as important as selecting
other professional services. Look for the same high degree of
competence you would expect from a doctor or lawyer. The company
should inspect your premises and outline a recommended control
program, including what pests are to be controlled; the extent of
the infestation; what pesticide formulation will be used in your
home and why; what techniques will be used in application; what
alternatives to the formulation and techniques could be used
instead; what special instructions you should follow to reduce your
exposure to the pesticide (such as vacating the house, emptying the
cupboards, removing pets, etc.); and what you can do to minimize
your pest problems in the future.
Contracts should be jointly developed. Any safety concerns should
be noted and reflected in the choice of pesticides to be used.
These concerns could include allergies, age of occupants (infants
or elderly), or pets. You may want to get two to three, bids from
different companies--by value, not price. What appears to be a
bargain may merit a second look.
Even after you have hired a company, you should continue your
vigilance. Evaluate results. If you have reason to believe that
something has gone wrong with the pesticide application, contact
the company and/or your state lead pesticide agency. Don't let your
guard down, and don't stop asking questions.
How to Reduce Your Exposure to Pesticides
Because chemical pesticides are so widely used in our society, and
because of the properties of many of the chemicals, low levels of
pesticide residues are found throughout the environment. Pesticides
reach us in a variety of ways--through food, water, and air.
In regulating pesticides, EPA strives to ensure that lawful use of
these products will not result in harmful exposures. Proper use of
registered products should yield residue levels that are well within
established safety standards. Therefore, the average American's exposure
to low-level residues, though fairly constant, should not cause alarm.
Still, many people want to learn what choices they can make to
further reduce their exposure to any potential risks associated with
pesticides. By limiting your exposure to these products, you can keep
your risks to a minimum.
Below you will find descriptions of the main pathways of human
exposure to pesticides, as well as suggestions on ways to reduce overall
exposure and attendant risks. If, however, you suspect that you suffer
from serious chemical sensitivities, consult an expert to develop a more
personally tailored approach to managing this problem.
Exposure Through Food
[Graphic Omitted]
Commercial Food
Throughout life--beginning even before birth--we are all exposed to
pesticides. A major source of exposure is through our diets. We
constantly consume small amounts of pesticides. Fruits and vegetables,
as well as meat, poultry, eggs, and milk, are all likely to contain
measurable pesticide residues.
EPA sets standards, called tolerances, to limit the amount of
pesticide residues that legally may remain in or on food or animal feed
marketed in U.S. commerce. Both domestic and imported foods are
monitored by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the U.S.
Department of Agriculture (USDA) to ensure compliance with these
tolerances. Further, since pesticide residues generally tend to degrade
over time and through processing, residue concentrations in or on most
foods are well below legal tolerance levels by the time the foods are
Although EPA does limit dietary pesticide exposure through
tolerances, you may wish to take extra precautions. You can take several
steps to reduce your exposure to residues in purchased food.
* Rinse fruit and vegetables thoroughly with water; scrub them with a
brush and peel them, if possible. Although this surface cleaning
will not remove "systemic" pesticide residues taken up into the
growing fruit or vegetable, it will remove most of the existing
surface residues, not to mention any dirt.
* Cook or bake foods to reduce residues of some (but not all)
* Trim the fat from meat and poultry. Discard the fats and oils in
broths and pan drippings, since residues of some pesticides
concentrate in fat.
Home-grown Food
Growing some of your own food can be both a pleasurable activity
and a way to reduce your exposure to pesticide residues in food. But,
even here, there are some things you may want to do to assure that
exposure is limited.
* Before converting land in an urban or suburban area to gardening,
find out how the land was used previously. Choose a site that had
limited (or no) chemical applications and where drift or runoff
from your neighbor's activities will not result in unintended
pesticide residues on your produce. Choose a garden site
strategically to avoid these potential routes of entry, if
If you are taking over an existing garden plot, be aware that the
soil may contain pesticide residues from previous gardening
activities. These residues may remain in the soil for several
years, depending on the persistence of the pesticides that were
used. Rather than waiting for the residues to decline naturally
over time, you may speed the process.
* Plant an interim, non-food, crop like annual rye grass, clover, or
alfalfa. Such crops, with their dense, fibrous root systems, will
take up some of the lingering pesticide residues. Then discard the
crops--don't work them back into the soil--and continue to
alternate food crops with cover crops in the off season.
* During sunny periods, turn over the soil as often as every two to
three days for a week or two. The sunlight will help to break down,
or photodegrade, some of the pesticide residues.
Once you do begin gardening, develop strategies that will reduce
your need for pesticides while maintaining good crop yields.
* Concentrate on building your garden's soil, since healthy soil
grows healthy plants. Feed the soil with compost, manure, etc., to
increase its capacity to support strong crops.
* Select seeds and seedlings from hardy, disease-resistant varieties.
The resulting plants are less likely to need pesticides in order to
* Avoid monoculture gardening techniques. Instead, alternate rows of
different kinds of plants to prevent significant pest problems from
* Don't plant the same crop in the same spot year after year if you
want to reduce plant susceptibility to over-wintered pests.
* Become familiar with integrated pest management (IPM) techniques,
so that you can manage any pest outbreaks that do occur without
relying solely on pesticides.
* Mulch your garden with leaves, hay, grass clippings,
shredded/chipped bark, or seaweed. Avoid using newspapers to keep
down weeds, and sewage sludge to fertilize plants. Newsprint may
contain heavy metals; sludge may contain heavy metals and
pesticides, both of which can leach into your soil.
Food from the Wild
While it might seem that hunting your own game, catching your own
fish, or gathering wild plant foods would reduce your overall exposure
to pesticides, this isn't necessarily so. Wild foods hunted, caught, or
gathered in areas where pesticides are frequently used outdoors may
contain pesticide residues. Migratory species also may contain pesticide
residues if these chemicals are used anywhere in their flyways.
Tolerances generally are not established or enforced for pesticides
found in wild game, fowl, fish, or plants. Thus, if you consume food
from the wild, you may want to take the following steps to reduce your
exposure to pesticide residues.
* Because wild game is very lean, there is less fat in which
pesticides can accumulate. However, avoid hunting in areas where
pesticide usage is very high.
* Avoid fishing in water bodies where water contamination is known to
have occurred. Pay attention to posted signs warning of
* You may want to consult with fish and game officials where you plan
to hunt or fish to determine whether there are any pesticide
problems associated with that area.
* When picking wild plant foods, avoid gathering right next to a
road, utility right-of-way, or hedgerow between farm fields which
probably have been treated (directly or indirectly) with
pesticides. Instead, seek out fields that have not been used to
produce crops, deep woods, or other areas where pesticide use is
* When preparing wild foods, trim fat from meat, and discard skin of
fish to remove as many fat-soluble pesticide residues as possible.
For wild plant foods, follow the tips provided for commercial food.
[Graphic Omitted]
Exposure Through Water
[Graphic Omitted]
Whether it comes from surface or ground water sources, the water
flowing from your tap may contain low levels of pesticides.
When pesticides are applied to land, a certain amount may run off
the land into streams and rivers. This runoff, coupled with industrial
discharges, can result in low-level contamination of surface water. In
certain hydrogeologic settings--for example, sandy soil over a ground
water source that is near the surface--pesticides can leach down through
the soil to the ground water.
EPA's Water Program sets standards and provides advisory levels for
pesticides and other chemicals that may be found in drinking water.
Public municipal water systems test their water periodically and provide
treatment or alternate supply sources if residue problems arise. Private
wells generally are not tested unless the well owner requests such
If you get your drinking water from a private well, you can reduce
the chance of contaminating your water supply by following these
* Be cautious about using pesticides and other chemicals on your
property, especially if the well is shallow or is not tightly
constructed. Check with your EPA regional office or County
Extension Service before using a pesticide outdoors, to determine
whether it is known or suspected to leach to ground water. Never
use or mix a pesticide near your well head.
* To avoid pesticide contamination problems, be sure your well
extends downward to aquifers that are below, and isolated from,
surface aquifers, and be sure the well shaft is tightly sealed. If
you have questions about pesticide or other chemical residues in
your well water, contact your state or county health department.
* If your well water is analyzed and found to contain pesticide
residue levels above established or recommended health standards,
you may wish to use an alternate water source such as bottled water
for drinking and cooking. The best choice is distilled spring water
in glass bottles. Ask your local bottler for the results of a
recent pesticide analysis.
Exposure Through Air
Outdoors, air currents may carry pesticides that were applied on
adjacent property or miles away. But there are steps you can take to
reduce your exposure to airborne pesticide residue, or drift, outdoors.
To reduce your exposure to airborne pesticides:
* Avoid applying pesticides in windy weather (when winds exceed 10
miles per hour).
* Use coarse droplet nozzles to reduce misting.
* Apply the spray as close to the target as possible.
* Keep the wind to your side so that sprays and dusts do not blow
into your face.
* If someone else is applying pesticides outdoors near your home,
stay indoors with your pets and children, keeping doors and windows
closed. If it is very windy during the pesticide application, stay
inside for an hour or two.
* If pesticides are applied frequently near your home (if you live
next to fields receiving regular pesticide treatment), consider
planting a buffer zone of thick-branched trees and shrubs upwind to
help serve as a buffer zone and windbreak.
* Many local governments require public notification in advance of
area-wide or broad-scale pesticide spray activities and
programs--through announcements in newspapers, letters to area
residents, or posting of signs in areas to be treated. Some
communities have also enacted "right to know" ordinances which
require public notification, usually through posting, of lawn
treatments and other small-scale outdoor pesticide uses. If your
local government does not require notifications, either for large-
or small-scale applications, you may want to work with local
officials to develop such requirements.
Indoors, the air you breathe may bear pesticide residues long after
a pesticide has been applied to objects in your home or office, or
to indoor surfaces and crawl spaces. Pesticides dissipate more
slowly indoors than outdoors. In addition, energy efficiency
features built into many homes reduce air exchange, aggravating the
problem. To limit your exposure to indoor pesticide residues:
* Use pesticides indoors only when absolutely necessary, and then use
only limited amounts. Provide adequate ventilation during and after
application. If you hire a pest control company, oversee its
activities carefully.
* If pesticides are used inside your home, air out the house often,
since outdoor air generally is fresher and purer than indoor air.
Open doors and windows, and run overhead or whole-house fans to
exchange indoor air for outside air rapidly and completely.
* If pesticides have been used extensively and an indoor air
contamination problem has developed, clean--scrub--all surfaces
where pesticides may have settled, including cracks and crevices.
Consult a knowledgeable professional for advice on appropriate
cleaning materials if soap and water are insufficient.
Exposure Through Home Usage
Over a lifetime, diet is the most significant source of pesticide
exposure for the general public. However, on a short-term basis, the
most significant exposure source is personal pesticide use.
An array of pesticide products, ranging widely in toxicity and
potential effects, is available "off the shelf" to the private user. No
special training is required to purchase or use these products, and no
one is looking over the users' shoulder, monitoring their vigilance in
reading and following label instructions. Yet many of these products are
hazardous, especially if they are stored, handled, or applied
To minimize the hazards and maximize the benefits that pesticides
bring, exercise caution and respect when using any pesticide product.
* Consider pesticide labeling to be what it is intended to be: your
best guide to using pesticides safely and effectively.
* Pretend that the pesticide product you are using is more toxic than
you think it is. Take special precautions to ensure an extra margin
of protection for yourself, your family, and pets.
* Don't use more pesticide than the label says. You may not achieve a
higher degree of pest control, and you will certainly experience a
higher degree of risk.
* If you hire a pest control firm to do the job, ask the company to
use the least toxic or any chemical-free pest control means
available that will do the job. For example, some home pest control
companies offer an electro-gun technique to control termite and
similar infestations by penetrating infested areas and "frying" the
problem pests without using any chemicals.
* And remember: sometimes a non-pesticidal approach is as convenient
and effective as its chemical alternatives. Consider using such
non-pesticidal approaches whenever possible.
"Someone's Been Poisoned. Help!"
What To Do in a Pesticide Emergency
The potential for a pesticide to cause injury depends upon several
* Toxicity of the active ingredient. Toxicity is a measure of the
inherent ability of a chemical to produce injury. Some pesticides,
such as pyrethrins, have low human toxicity while others, such as
sodium fluoroacetate, are extremely toxic.
* Dose. The greater the dose of a specific pesticide, i.e. the amount
absorbed, the greater the risk of injury. Dose is dependent upon
the absolute amount of the pesticide absorbed relative to the
weight of the person. Therefore, small amounts of a pesticide might
produce illness in a small child while the same dose of the same
pesticide in an adult might be relatively harmless.
* Route of absorption. Swallowing a pesticide usually creates the
most serious problem. In practice, however, the most common route
of absorption of pesticides is through the skin and the most toxic
pesticides have resulted in death through this route of exposure.
* Duration of exposure. The longer a person is exposed to pesticides,
the higher the level in the body. There is a point at which an
equilibrium will develop between the intake and the output. Then,
the level will no longer continue to increase. However, this point
may be either above or below the known toxic level.
* Physical and chemical properties. The distribution and the rates of
breakdown of pesticides in the environment significantly alter the
likelihood that injury might occur.
* Population at risk. Persons who run the greatest danger of
poisoning are those whose exposure is highest, such as workers who
mix, load, or apply pesticides. However, the general public also
faces the possibility of exposure.
Recognizing Pesticide Poisoning
Like other chemicals, pesticides may produce injury externally or
External irritants may cause contact-associated skin disease
primarily of an irritant nature--producing redness, itching, or
pimples--or an allergic skin reaction, producing redness, swelling, or
blistering. The mucous membranes of the eyes, nose, mouth, and throat
are also quite sensitive to chemicals. Stinging and swelling can occur.
Internal injuries from any chemical may occur depending upon where
a chemical is transported in the body. Thus, symptoms are dependent upon
the organ involved. Shortness of breath, clear saliva, or rapid
breathing may occur as the result of lung injury. Nausea, vomiting,
abdominal cramps, or diarrhea may result from direct injury to the
gastrointestinal tract. Excessive fatigue, sleepiness, headache, muscle
twitching, and loss of sensation may result from injury to the nervous
system. In general, different classes of pesticides produce different
sets of symptoms.
For example, organophosphate pesticides may produce symptoms of
pesticide poisoning affecting several different organs, and may progress
rapidly from very mild to severe. Symptoms may progress in a matter of
minutes from slight difficulty with vision to paralysis of the diaphragm
muscle, causing inability to breathe.
Therefore, if someone develops symptoms after working with
pesticides, seek medical help promptly to determine if the symptoms are
pesticide-related. In certain cases, blood or urine can be collected for
analysis, or other specific exposure tests can be made. It is better to
be too cautious than too late.
It is always important to avoid problems by minimizing your
exposure when mixing and applying pesticides by wearing gloves and other
protective clothing.
The appropriate first aid treatment depends upon which pesticide
was used. Here are some tips for first aid that may precede, but should
not substitute for, medical treatment:
* Poison on skin. Drench skin with water and remove contaminated
clothing. Wash skin and hair thoroughly with soap and water. Dry
victim and wrap in blanket. Later, discard contaminated clothing or
thoroughly wash it separately from other laundry.
* Chemical burn on skin. Drench skin with water and remove
contaminated clothing. Cover burned area immediately with loose,
clean, soft cloth. Do not apply ointments, greases, powders, or
other drugs. Later, discard or thoroughly wash contaminated
clothing separately from other laundry.
* Poison in eye. Eye membranes absorb pesticides faster than any
other external part of the body; eye damage can occur in a few
minutes with some types of pesticides. Hold eyelid open and wash
eye quickly and gently with clean running water from the tap or a
hose for 15 minutes or more. Do not use eye drops or chemicals or
drugs in the wash water.
* Inhaled poison. Carry or drag victim to fresh air immediately. (If
proper protection is unavailable to you, call for emergency
equipment from the Fire Department.) Loosen victim's tight
clothing. If the victim's skin is blue or the victim has stopped
breathing, give artificial respiration and call rescue service for
help. Open doors and windows so no one else will be poisoned by
* Swallowed poison. A conscious victim should rinse his mouth with
plenty of water and then drink up to one quart of milk or water to
dilute the pesticide. Induce vomiting only if instructions to do so
are on the label. If there is no label available to guide you, do
not induce vomiting. Never induce vomiting if the victim is
unconscious or is having convulsions.
In dealing with any poisoning, act fast; speed is crucial.
First Aid for Pesticide Poisoning
First aid is the first step in treating a pesticide poisoning.
Study the "Statement of Treatment" on the product label before you use a
pesticide. When you realize a pesticide poisoning is occurring, be sure
the victim is not being further exposed to the poison before calling for
emergency help. An unconscious victim will have to be dragged into fresh
air. Caution: do not become poisoned yourself while trying to help. You
may have to put on breathing equipment or protective clothing to avoid
becoming the second victim.
After giving initial first aid, get medical help immediately. This
advice cannot be repeated too often. Bring the product container with
its label to the doctor's office or emergency room where the victim will
be treated; keep the container out of the passenger space of your
vehicle. The doctor needs to know what chemical is in the pesticide
before prescribing treatment (information that is also on the label).
Sometimes the label even includes a telephone number to call for
additional treatment information.
A good resource in a pesticide emergency is NPTN, the National
Pesticide Telecommunications Network, a toll-free telephone service.
Operators are on call 24 hours a day, 365 days a year, to provide
information on pesticides and on recognizing and responding to pesticide
poisonings. If necessary they can transfer inquiries directly to
affiliated poison control centers.
National Pesticide Telecommunications Network
Call Toll-Free 1-800-858-7378
NPTN operators answer questions about animal as well as human
poisonings. To keep your pets from being poisoned, follow label
directions on flea and tick products carefully, and keep pets off lawns
that have been newly treated with weed killers and insecticides.
EPA is interested in receiving information on any adverse effects
associated with pesticide exposure. If you have such information,
contact Frank Davido, Pesticide Incident Response Officer, Field
Operations Division (H-7506C), Office of Pesticide Programs, EPA, 401 M
Street, SW., Washington, D C 20460. You should provide as complete
information as possible, including any official investigation report of
the incident and medical records concerning adverse health effects.
Medical records will be held in confidence.
EPA Regional Offices and States Covered
EPA Region 1
JFK Federal Building
Boston, MA 02203
(617) 565-3424
Connecticut, Massachusetts, Maine, New Hampshire, Rhode Island,
EPA Region 2
26 Federal Plaza
New York, NY 10278
(212) 264-2515
New Jersey, New York, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands
EPA Region 3
841 Chestnut Street
Philadelphia, PA 19107
(215) 597-9370
Delaware, Maryland, Pennsylvania, Virginia, West Virginia,
District of Columbia
EPA Region 4
345 Courtland Street, N.E.
Atlanta, GA 30365
(404) 347-3004
Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, North
Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee
EPA Region 5
230 South Dearborn Street
Chicago, IL 60604
(312) 353-2072
Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, Wisconsin
EPA Region 6
1445 Ross Avenue
Dallas, TX 75202
(214) 655-2200
Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas
EPA Region 7
726 Minnesota Avenue
Kansas City, KS 66101
(913) 551-7003
Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, Nebraska
EPA Region 8
One Denver Place
999 18th Street, Suite 1300
Denver, CO 80202-2413
(303) 293-1692
Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah, Wyoming
EPA Region 9
75 Hawthorne Street
San Francisco, CA 94105
FTS 8-848-1305
DDD (415) 744-1305
Arizona, California, Hawaii, Nevada, American Samoa, Guam,
Trust Territories of the Pacific
EPA Region 10
1200 Sixth Avenue
Seattle, WA 98101
FTS 8-399-1107
DDD (206) 553-1107
Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, Washington
EPA Headquarters
401 M Street S.W.
Washington, D.C. 20460
(202) 382-4454
United States Environmental Protection Agency
Regional Organization
[Graphic Omitted]
State Pesticide Agencies
Region 1
Dept. of Environmental Protection
Bureau of Waste Management, Pesticide Division
State Office Building
165 Capitol Avenue
Hartford, CT 06106
(203) 566-5148
Board of Pesticide Control
Dept. of Agriculture
State House -- Station 28
Augusta, ME 04333
(207) 289-2731
Pesticides Bureau
Dept. of Food and Agriculture
100 Cambridge Street, 21st Floor
Boston, MA 02202
(617) 727-3020
New Hampshire
Division of Pesticides Control
Dept. of Agriculture
Caller Box 2042
Concord, NH 03302-2042
(603) 271-3550
Rhode Island
Division of Agriculture and Marketing
Dept. of Environmental Management
22 Hayes Street
Providence, RI 02908
(401) 277-2781
Plant Industry Laboratory of Standards Division
Dept. of Agriculture
116 State St., State Office Bldg
Montpelier, VT 05602
(802) 828-2431
Region 2
New Jersey
Assistant Director,
Pesticide Control Program
NJ Dept. of Environmental Protection
380 Scotch Road CN 411
Trenton, NJ 08625
(609) 530-4123
New York
Bureau of Pesticides
Dept. of Environmental Conservation
Rm. 404, 50 Wolf Rd.
Albany NY 12233-7254
(518) 457-7482
Puerto Rico
Analysis & Registration of Agricultural Materials
Division of Laboratory
Puerto Rico Dept. of Agriculture
P.O. Box 10163
Santurce, PR 00908
(809) 796-1715
Virgin Islands
Pesticide Programs
Division of Natural Resources Management
Department of Conservation and Cultural Affairs
P.O. Box 4340
St. Thomas, VI 00801
(809) 773-0565
Region 3
Delaware Dept. of Agriculture
2320 S. DuPont Highway
Dover, DE 19901
(302) 739-4811
District of Columbia
Pesticide and Hazardous Waste Management Branch,
Environmental Control Division
Room 203
2100 Martin Luther King Avenue S.E.
Washington, D.C. 20020
(202) 404-1167
Pesticide Regulation Section
Maryland Dept. of Agriculture
50 Harry S. Truman Parkway
Annapolis, MD 21401
(301) 841-5710
Agronomic Services
Bureau of Plant Industry
PA Dept. of Agriculture
2301 N. Cameron Street
Harrisburg, PA 17110-9408
(717) 787-4843
Office of Pesticide Management
VA Dept. of Agriculture and Consumer Service
P.O. Box 1163
Richmond, VA 23209
(804) 371-6558
West Virginia
Plant Pest Control Division
W VA Dept. of Agriculture
State Capitol Building
Charleston, WV 25305
(304) 348-2212
Region 4
Agricultural Chemistry/Plant Industry Division
Alabama Dept. of Agriculture and Industries
P.O. Box 3336
Montgomery, AL 36109-0336
(205) 242-2631
Pesticide Registration Section
Bureau of Pesticides
Division of Inspection
Dept. of Agriculture and Consumer Services
3125 Conner Boulevard
Tallahassee, FL 32399-1650
(904) 487-0532
Agricultural Manager
Entomology and Pesticides Division
Dept. of Agriculture
19 Martin Luther King Jr. Drive, S.W.
Atlanta, GA 30334
(404) 656-4958
Division of Pesticides
Kentucky Dept. of Agriculture
500 Metro Street, 7th Floor
Frankfort, KY 40601
(502) 564-7274
Division of Plant Industry
Dept. of Agriculture & Commerce
P.O. Box 5207
Mississippi State, MS 39762
(601) 325-3390
North Carolina
Food & Drug Pesticide Section
Dept. of Agriculture
P.O. Box 27647
Raleigh NC 27611-0647
(919) 733-3556
South Carolina
Dept. of Fertilizer/Pest Control
256 Poole Agriculture Center
Clemson University
Clemson, SC 29634-0394
(803) 656-3171
Plant Industries Division
Dept. of Agriculture
P.O. Box 40627, Melrose Station
Nashville, TN 37204
(615) 360-0130
Region 5
Bureau of Plant and Apiary Protection
Dept. of Agriculture
State Fair Ground
P.O. Box 19281
Springfield, IL 62794-9281
(217) 785-2427
Office of Health Regulation
Dept. of Public Health
535 West Jefferson
Springfield, IL 62761
(217) 782-4674
Office of the State Chemist
Dept. of Biochemistry
Purdue University
West Lafayette, IN 47907
(317) 494-1492
Pesticide and Plant Pest Management Division
Dept. of Agriculture
Ottawa Building
N. Tower, 4th Floor
611 W. Ottawa St.
P.O. Box 30017
Lansing, MI 48909
(517) 373-1087
Division of Agronomy Services
Dept. of Agriculture
90 West Plato Blvd.
St. Paul, MN 55107
(612) 296-1161
Specialist in Charge of Pesticide Regulation
Division of Plant Industry
Dept. of Agriculture
8995 East Main St.
Reynoldsburg, OH 43068
(614) 866-6361
Groundwater and Regulatory Service Section
Dept. of Agriculture
Trade and Consumer Protection
801 West Badger Rd.
P.O. Box 8911
Madison, WI 53708
(608) 266-9459
Region 6
Division of Feed, Fertilizer & Pesticides
Arkansas State Plant Board
#1 Natural Resources Dr.
Little Rock, AR 72203
(501) 225-1598
Office of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences
Louisiana Dept. of Agriculture
P.O. Box 3596
Baton Rouge, LA 70821-3596
(504) 925-3763
New Mexico
Division of Agricultural and Environmental Services
N.M. State Dept. of Agriculture
P.O. Box 3005-3AQ 1
N.M. State University
Las Cruces, NM 88003
(505) 545-2133
Pest Management Section
Plant Industry Division
Oklahoma State Dept. of Agriculture
2800 N. Lincoln Blvd.
Oklahoma City, OK 73105
(405) 521-3864
Division of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences
Texas Dept. of Agriculture
P.O. Box 12847
Austin, TX 78711
(512) 463-7534
Region 7
Pesticide Control Bureau Section
Iowa Dept. of Agriculture
Henry A. Wallace Building
E. 9th St. & Grand Ave.
Des Moines, IA 50319
(515) 281-8591
Plant Health Division
Kansas State Board of Agriculture
109 S.W. 9th Street
Topeka, KS 66612
(913) 296-2263
Bureau of Pesticide Control
Dept. of Agriculture
P.O. Box 630
Jefferson City, MO 65102
(314) 751-2462
Bureau of Plant Industry
Nebraska Dept. of Agriculture
301 Centennial Mall South
Lincoln, NE 68509
(402) 471-2341
Region 8
Pesticide Applicator Section
Division of Plant Industry
Colorado Department of Agriculture
700 Kipling Street Ste 4000
Lakewood, CO 80215-5894
(303) 866-2838
Environmental Management Division
Montana Dept. of Agriculture
Agriculture-Livestock Building
Rm. 317 Capitol Station
6th & Roberts
Helena, MT 59620-0205
(406) 444-2944
North Dakota
Pesticide/Noxious Weed Division
N.D. Dept. of Agriculture
600 East Boulevard, 6th Floor
Bismarck, ND 58505-0020
(701) 224-4756
South Dakota
Division of Regulatory Services
S.D. Dept. of Agriculture
Anderson Bldg.,
445 East Capitol
Pierre, SD 57501
(605) 773-3724
Division of Plant Industries
Utah Dept. of Agriculture
350 North Redwood Road
Salt Lake City, UT 84116
(801) 538-7123
Pesticide Division
Wyoming Dept. of Agriculture
2219 Carey Avenue
Cheyenne, WY 82002-0100
(307) 777-6590
Region 9
Agricultural Chemical & Environmental Services Division
AZ Commission of Agriculture and Horticulture
1688 West Adam's, Suite 103
Phoenix, AZ 85007
(602) 542-4373
State Chemist
Office of the State Chemist
P.O. Box 1586
Mesa, AZ 85211
(602) 833-5442
Executive Director
Structural Pest Control Commission
1150 S. Priest, Suite 4
Tempe, AZ 85281
(602) 255-3664
California Department of Pesticide Regulation
1220 "N" Street
Sacramento, CA 98514
(916) 322-6315
Division of Plant Industry
Hawaii Dept. of Agriculture
1428 South King Street
Honolulu, HI 96814-2512
(808) 548-7119
Division of Plant Industry
Nevada Dept. of Agriculture
350 Capitol Hill Avenue
P.O. Box 11100
Reno, NV 89510-1100
(702) 688-1180
Pesticide Enforcement Officer Guam
Environmental Protection Agency
130 Rojas Street
Harmon, GU 96910
American Samoa
Dept. of Agriculture
P.O. Box 366
Pago Pago, American Samoa 96799
Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands
Executive Officer
Trust Territory
Environmental Protection Board
Office of the High Commissioner
Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands
Saipan, Mariana Islands 96950
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands
Environmental Engineer
Division of Environmental Quality
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI)
Dr. Torres Hospital
Saipan, Mariana Island 96950
Region 10
Bureau of Pesticides
Idaho Dept. of Agriculture
P.O. Box 790
Boise, ID 83701
(208) 334-3243
Assistant Chief
Plant Division
Oregon Dept. of Agriculture
635 Capitol Street, N.E.
Salem, OR 97310-0110
(503) 378-3776
Assistant Director,
Pesticide Management Division
Washington Department of Agriculture
406 General Administration Building (AX-41)
Olympia, WA 98504
(206) 753-5062
Division of Environmental Health
Alaska Dept. of Environmental Conservation
P.O. Box "O"
Juneau, AK 99811-1800
(907) 465-2609
Pesticide Program Supervisor and Pesticide Specialist
500 South Alaska Street, Suite A
Juneau, AK 99645
(907) 465-2696

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