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What is Air Duct Cleaning?

Most people are now aware that indoor air pollution is an issue of
growing concern and increased visibility. Many companies are marketing
products and services intended to improve the quality of your indoor
air. You have probably seen an advertisement, received a coupon in the
mail, or been approached directly by a company offering to clean your
air ducts as a means of improving your home's indoor air quality. These
services typically -- but not always -- range in cost from $450 to
$1,000 per heating and cooling system, depending on the services
offered, the size of the system to be cleaned, system accessibility,
climatic region, and level of contamination.
Duct cleaning generally refers to the cleaning of various heating and
cooling system components of forced air systems, including the supply
and return air ducts and registers, grilles and diffusers, heat
exchangers heating and cooling coils, condensate drain pans (drip pans),
fan motor and fan housing, and the air handling unit housing (See
If not properly installed, maintained, and operated, these components
may become contaminated with particles of dust, pollen or other debris.
If moisture is present, the potential for microbiological growth (e.g.,
mold) is increased and spores from such growth may be released into the
home's living space. Some of these contaminants may cause allergic
reactions or other symptoms in people if they are exposed to them. If
you decide to have your heating and cooling system cleaned, it is
important to make sure the service provider agrees to clean all
components of the system and is qualified to do so. Failure to clean a
component of a contaminated system can result in re-contamination of the
entire system, thus negating any potential benefits. Methods of duct
cleaning vary, although standards have been established by industry
associations concerned with air duct cleaning. Typically, a service
provider will use specialized tools to dislodge dirt and other debris in
ducts, then vacuum them out with a high-powered vacuum cleaner.
In addition, the service provider may propose applying chemical
biocides, designed to kill microbiological contaminants, to the inside
of the duct work and to other system components. Some service providers
may also suggest applying chemical treatments (sealants or other
encapsulants) to seal or cover the inside surfaces of the air ducts and
equipment housings because they believe the sealant will control mold
growth or prevent the release of dirt particles or fibers from ducts.
These practices have yet to be fully researched and you should be fully
informed before deciding to permit the use of biocides or sealants in
your air ducts. They should only be applied, if at all, after the system
has been properly cleaned of all visible dust or debris.
Components of a Typical*
Residential Heating and Cooling System
Deciding Whether or Not to Have Your Air Ducts Cleaned
Knowledge about the potential benefits and possible problems of air duct
cleaning is limited. Since conditions in every home are different, it is
impossible to generalize about whether or not air duct cleaning in your
home would be beneficial.
If no one in your household suffers from allergies or unexplained
symptoms or illnesses and if, after a visual inspection of the inside of
the ducts, you see no indication that your air ducts are contaminated
with large deposits of dust or mold (no musty odor or visible mold
growth), having your air ducts cleaned is probably unnecessary. It is
normal for the return registers to get dusty as dust-laden air is pulled
through the grate. This does not indicate that your air ducts are
contaminated with heavy deposits of dust or debris; the registers can be
easily vacuumed or removed and cleaned.
On the other hand, if family members are experiencing unusual or
unexplained symptoms or illnesses that you think might be related to
your home environment, you should discuss the situation with your
doctor. EPA has published Indoor Air Quality: An Introduction for Health
Professionals that can be obtained free of charge by contacting IAQ INFO
at the number listed in this guide. You may obtain another free EPA
booklet from IAQ INFO entitled The Inside Story: A Guide to Indoor Air
Quality for guidance on identifying possible indoor air quality problems
and ways to prevent or fix them.
You may consider having your air ducts cleaned simply because it seems
logical that air ducts will get dirty over time and should occasionally
be cleaned. While the debate about the value of periodic duct cleaning
continues, no evidence suggests that such cleaning would be detrimental,
provided that it is done properly.
On the other hand, if a service provider fails to follow proper duct
cleaning procedures, duct cleaning can cause indoor air problems. For
example, an inadequate vacuum collection system can release more dust,
dirt, and other contaminants than if you had left the ducts alone. A
careless or inadequately trained service provider can damage your ducts
or heating and cooling system, possibly increasing your heating and air
conditioning costs or forcing you to undertake difficult and costly
repairs or replacements.
You should consider having the air ducts in your home cleaned if:
* There is substantial visible mold growth inside hard surface (e.g.,
sheet metal) ducts or on other components of your heating and cooling
system. There are several important points to understand concerning
mold detection in heating and cooling systems:
> Many sections of your heating and cooling system may not be
accessible for a visible inspection, so ask the service provider
to show you any mold they say exists.
> You should be aware that although a substance may look like mold,
a positive determination of whether it is mold or not can be made
only by an expert and may require laboratory analysis for final
confirmation. For about $50, some microbiology laboratories can
tell you whether a sample sent to them on a clear strip of sticky
household tape is mold or simply a substance that resembles it.
> If you have insulated air ducts and the insulation gets wet or
moldy it cannot be effectively cleaned and should be removed and
replaced. If the conditions causing the mold growth in the first
place are not corrected, mold growth will recur.
> Ducts are infested with vermin, e.g. (rodents or insects); or
> Ducts are clogged with excessive amounts of dust and debris and/or
particles are actually released into the home from your supply
Other Important Considerations...
Duct cleaning has never been shown to actually prevent health problems.
Neither do studies conclusively demonstrate that particle (e.g., dust)
levels in homes increase because of dirty air ducts or go down after
cleaning. This is because much of the dirt that may accumulate inside
air ducts adheres to duct surfaces and does not necessarily enter the
living space. It is important to keep in mind that dirty air ducts are
only one of many possible sources of particles that are present in
homes. Pollutants that enter the home both from outdoors and indoor
activities such as cooking, cleaning, smoking, or just moving around can
cause greater exposure to contaminants than dirty air ducts. Moreover,
there is no evidence that a light amount of household dust or other
particulate matter in air ducts poses any risk to health.
EPA does not recommend that air ducts be cleaned except on an as-needed
basis because of the continuing uncertainty about the benefits of duct
cleaning under most circumstances. If a service provider or advertiser
asserts that EPA recommends routine duct cleaning or makes claims about
its health benefits, you should notify EPA by writing to the address
listed at the end of this guidance. EPA does, however, recommend that if
you have a fuel burning furnace, stove, or fireplace, they be inspected
for proper functioning and serviced before each heating season to
protect against carbon monoxide poisoning. Some research also suggests
that cleaning dirty cooling coils, fans and heat exchangers can improve
the efficiency of heating and cooling systems. However, little evidence
exists to indicate that simply cleaning the duct system will increase
your system's efficiency.
If you think duct cleaning might be a good idea for your home, but you
are not sure, talk to a professional. The company that services your
heating and cooling system may be a good source of advice. You may also
want to contact professional duct cleaning service providers and ask
them about the services they provide. Remember, they are trying to sell
you a service, so ask questions and insist on complete and knowledgeable
Suggestions for Choosing a Duct Cleaning Service Provider
To find companies that provide duct cleaning services, check your Yellow
Pages under "duct cleaning" or contact the National Air Duct Cleaners
Association (NADCA) at the address and phone number in the information
section located at the end of this guidance. Do not assume that all duct
cleaning service providers are equally knowledgeable and responsible.
Talk to at least three different service providers and get written
estimates before deciding whether to have your ducts cleaned. When the
service providers come to your home, ask them to show you the
contamination that would justify having your ducts cleaned.
Do not hire duct cleaners who make sweeping claims about the health
benefits of duct cleaning -- such claims are unsubstantiated. Do not
hire duct cleaners who recommend duct cleaning as a routine part of your
heating and cooling system maintenance. You should also be wary of duct
cleaners who claim to be certified by EPA. EPA neither establishes duct
cleaning standards nor certifies, endorses, or approves duct cleaning
Do not allow the use of chemical biocides or sealants unless you fully
understand the pros and the cons (See "Unresolved Issues of Duct
Check references to be sure other customers were satisfied and did not
experience any problems with their heating and cooling system after
Contact your county or city office of consumer affairs or local Better
Business Bureau to determine if complaints have been lodged against any
of the companies you are considering.
Interview potential service providers to ensure:
* they are experienced in duct cleaning and have worked on systems like
* they will use procedures to protect you, your pets, and your home
from contamination; and
* they comply with NADCA's air duct cleaning standards and, if your
ducts are constructed of fiber glass duct board or insulated
internally with fiber glass duct liner, with the North American
Insulation Manufacturers Association's (NAIMA) recommendations.
Ask the service provider whether they hold any relevant state licenses.
As of 1996, the following states require air duct cleaners to hold
special licenses: Arizona, Arkansas, California, Florida, Georgia,
Michigan and Texas. Other states may require them as well.
If the service provider charges by the hour, request an estimate of the
number of hours or days the job will take, and find out whether there
will be interruptions in the work. Make sure the duct cleaner you choose
will provide a written agreement outlining the total cost and scope of
the job before work begins.
What to Expect From an Air Duct Cleaning Service Provider
If you choose to have your ducts cleaned, the service provider should:
* Open access ports or doors to allow the entire system to be cleaned
and inspected.
* Inspect the system before cleaning to be sure that there are no
asbestos-containing materials (e.g., insulation, register boots,
etc.) in the heating and cooling system. Asbestos-containing
materials require specialized procedures and should not be disturbed
or removed except by specially trained and equipped contractors.
* Use vacuum equipment that exhausts particles outside of the home or
use only high-efficiency particle air (HEPA) vacuuming equipment if
the vacuum exhausts inside the home.
* Protect carpet and household furnishings during cleaning.
* Use well-controlled brushing of duct surfaces in conjunction with
contact vacuum cleaning to dislodge dust and other particles.
* Use only soft-bristled brushes for fiberglass duct board and sheet
metal ducts internally lined with fiberglass. (Although flex duct can
also be cleaned using soft-bristled brushes, it can be more
economical to simply replace accessible flex duct.)
* Take care to protect the duct work, including sealing and
re-insulating any access holes the service provider may have made or
used so they are airtight.
* Follow NADCA's standards for air duct cleaning and NAIMA's
recommended practice for ducts containing fiber glass lining or
constructed of fiber glass duct board.
How to Determine if the Duct Cleaner Did A Thorough Job
A thorough visual inspection is the best way to verify the cleanliness
of your heating and cooling system. Some service providers use remote
photography to document conditions inside ducts. All portions of the
system should be visibly clean; you should not be able to detect any
debris with the naked eye. Show the Post-Cleaning Consumer Checklist to
the service provider before the work begins. After completing the job,
ask the service provider to show you each component of your system to
verify that the job was performed satisfactorily.
If you answer "No" to any of the questions on the checklist, this may
indicate a problem with the job. Ask your service provider to correct
any deficiencies until you can answer "yes" to all the questions on the
Post-Cleaning Consumer Checklist Yes No
Did the service provider obtain access to and clean the
entire heating and cooling system, including ductwork and
all components (drain pans, humidifiers, coils, and fans)?
Has the service provider adequately demonstrated that duct
work and plenums are clean? (Plenum is a space in which
supply or return air is mixed or moves; can be duct,
joist space, attic and crawl spaces, or wall cavity.)
Is the heat exchanger surface visibly clean?
Cooling Components
Are both sides of the cooling coil visibly clean?
If you point a flashlight into the cooling coil, does light
shine through the other side? It should if the coil is clean.
Are the coil fins straight and evenly spaced (as opposed to
being bent over and smashed together)?
Is the coil drain pan completely clean and draining properly?
Are the blower blades clean and free of oil and debris?
Is the blower compartment free of visible dust or debris?
Is the return air plenum free of visible dust or debris?
Do filters fit properly and are they the proper efficiency
as recommended by HVAC system manufacturer?
Is the supply air plenum (directly downstream of the air
handling unit) free of moisture stains and contaminants?
Metal Ducts
Are interior ductwork surfaces free of visible debris?
(Select several sites at random in both the return and
supply sides of the system.)
Fiber Glass
Is all fiber glass material in good condition (i.e.,
free of tears and abrasions; well adhered to underlying
Access Doors
Are newly installed access doors in sheet metal ducts
attached with more than just duct tape (e.g., screws,
rivets, mastic, etc.)?
With the system running, is air leakage through access
doors or covers very slight or non-existent?
Air Vents
Have all registers, grilles, and diffusers been firmly
reattached to the walls, floors, and/or ceilings?
Are the registers, grilles, and diffusers visibly clean?
System Operation
Does the system function properly in both the heating
and cooling modes after cleaning?
How to Prevent Duct Contamination
Whether or not you decide to have the air ducts in your home cleaned,
committing to a good preventive maintenance program is essential to
minimize duct contamination.
To prevent dirt from entering the system:
* Use the highest efficiency air filter recommended by the manufacturer
of your heating and cooling system.
* Change filters regularly.
* If your filters become clogged, change them more frequently.
* Be sure you do not have any missing filters and that air cannot
bypass filters through gaps around the filter holder.
* When having your heating and cooling system maintained or checked for
other reasons, be sure to ask the service provider to clean cooling
coils and drain pans.
* During construction or renovation work that produces dust in your
home, seal off supply and return registers and do not operate the
heating and cooling system until after cleaning up the dust.
* Remove dust and vacuum your home regularly. (Use a high efficiency
vacuum (HEPA) cleaner or the highest efficiency filter bags your
vacuum cleaner can take. Vacuuming can increase the amount of dust in
the air during and after vacuuming as well as in your ducts).
* If your heating system includes in-duct humidification equipment, be
sure to operate and maintain the humidifier strictly as recommended
by the manufacturer.
To prevent ducts from becoming wet:
Moisture should not be present in ducts. Controlling moisture is the
most effective way to prevent biological growth in air ducts.
Moisture can enter the duct system through leaks or if the system has
been improperly installed or serviced. Research suggests that
condensation (which occurs when a surface temperature is lower than the
dew point temperature of the surrounding air) on or near cooling coils
of air conditioning units is a major factor in moisture contamination of
the system. The presence of condensation or high relative humidity is an
important indicator of the potential for mold growth on any type of
duct. Controlling moisture can often be difficult, but here are some
steps you can take:
* Promptly and properly repair any leaks or water damage.
* Pay particular attention to cooling coils, which are designed to
remove water from the air and can be a major source of moisture
contamination of the system that can lead to mold growth. Make sure
the condensate pan drains properly. The presence of substantial
standing water and/or debris indicates a problem requiring immediate
attention. Check any insulation near cooling coils for wet spots.
* Make sure ducts are properly sealed and insulated in all
non-air-conditioned spaces (e.g., attics and crawl spaces). This will
help to prevent moisture due to condensation from entering the system
and is important to make the system work as intended. To prevent
water condensation, the heating and cooling system must be properly
* If you are replacing your air conditioning system, make sure that the
unit is the proper size for your needs and that all ducts are sealed
at the joints. A unit that is too big will cycle on an off
frequently, resulting in poor moisture removal, particularly in areas
with high humidity. Also make sure that your new system is designed
to manage condensation effectively.
Unresolved Issues of Duct Cleaning
Does duct cleaning prevent health problems?
The bottom line is: no one knows. There are examples of ducts that have
become badly contaminated with a variety of materials that may pose
risks to your health. The duct system can serve as a means to distribute
these contaminants throughout a home. In these cases, duct cleaning may
make sense. However, a light amount of household dust in your air ducts
is normal. Duct cleaning is not considered to be a necessary part of
yearly maintenance of your heating and cooling system, which consists of
regular cleaning of drain pans and heating and cooling coils, regular
filter changes and yearly inspections of heating equipment. Research
continues in an effort to evaluate the potential benefits of air duct
In the meantime...
* Educate yourself about duct cleaning by contacting some or all of the
sources of information listed at the end of this publication and
asking questions of potential service providers.
Are duct materials other than bare sheet metal ducts more likely to be
contaminated with mold and other biological contaminants?
You may be familiar with air ducts that are constructed of sheet metal.
However, many modern residential air duct systems are constructed of
fiber glass duct board or sheet metal ducts that are lined on the inside
with fiber glass duct liner. Since the early 1970's, a significant
increase in the use of flexible duct, which generally is internally
lined with plastic or some other type of material, has occurred. The use
of insulated duct material has increased due to improved temperature
control, energy conservation, and reduced condensation. Internal
insulation provides better acoustical (noise) control. Flexible duct is
very low cost. These products are engineered specifically for use in
ducts or as ducts themselves, and are tested in accordance with
standards established by Underwriters Laboratories (UL), the American
Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), and the National Fire
Protection Association (NFPA).
Many insulated duct systems have operated for years without supporting
significant mold growth. Keeping them reasonably clean and dry is
generally adequate. However, there is substantial debate about whether
porous insulation materials (e.g., fiber glass) are more prone to
microbial contamination than bare sheet metal ducts. If enough dirt and
moisture are permitted to enter the duct system, there may be no
significant difference in the rate or extent of microbial growth in
internally lined or bare sheet metal ducts. However, treatment of mold
contamination on bare sheet metal is much easier. Cleaning and treatment
with an EPA-registered biocide are possible. Once fiberglass duct liner
is contaminated with mold, cleaning is not sufficient to prevent
regrowth and there are no EPA-registered biocides for the treatment of
porous duct materials. EPA, NADCA, and NAIMA all recommend the
replacement of wet or moldy fiber glass duct material.
In the meantime...
Experts do agree that moisture should not be present in ducts and if
moisture and dirt are present, the potential exists for biological
contaminants to grow and be distributed throughout the home. Controlling
moisture is the most effective way to prevent biological growth in all
types of air ducts.
* Correct any water leaks or standing water.
* Remove standing water under cooling coils of air handling units by
making sure that drain pans slope toward the drain.
* If humidifiers are used, they must be properly maintained.
* Air handling units should be constructed so that maintenance
personnel have easy, direct access to heat exchange components and
drain pans for proper cleaning and maintenance.
* Fiber glass, or any other insulation material that is wet or visibly
moldy (or if an unacceptable odor is present) should be removed and
replaced by a qualified heating and cooling system contractor.
* Steam cleaning and other methods involving moisture should not be
used on any kind of duct work.
Should chemical biocides be applied to the inside of air ducts?
Air duct cleaning service providers may tell you that they need to apply
a chemical biocide to the inside of your ducts to kill bacteria (germs),
and fungi (mold) and prevent future biological growth. Some duct
cleaning service providers may propose to introduce ozone to kill
biological contaminants. Ozone is a highly reactive gas that is
regulated in the outside air as a lung irritant. However, there remains
considerable controversy over the necessity and wisdom of introducing
chemical biocides or ozone into the duct work.
Among the possible problems with biocide and ozone application in air
* Little research has been conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness
of most biocides and ozone when used inside ducts. Simply spraying or
otherwise introducing these materials into the operating duct system
may cause much of the material to be transported through the system
and released into other areas of your home.
* Some people may react negatively to the biocide or ozone, causing
adverse health reactions.
Chemical biocides are regulated by EPA under Federal pesticide law. A
product must be registered by EPA for a specific use before it can be
legally used for that purpose. The specific use(s) must appear on the
pesticide (e.g., biocide) label, along with other important information.
It is a violation of federal law to use a pesticide product in any
manner inconsistent with the label directions.
A small number of products are currently registered by EPA specifically
for use on the inside of bare sheet metal air ducts. A number of
products are also registered for use as sanitizers on hard surfaces,
which could include the interior of bare sheet metal ducts. While many
such products may be used legally inside of unlined ducts if all label
directions are followed, some of the directions on the label may be
inappropriate for use in ducts. For example, if the directions indicate
"rinse with water", the added moisture could stimulate mold growth.
All of the products discussed above are registered solely for the
purpose of sanitizing the smooth surfaces of unlined (bare) sheet metal
ducts. No products are currently registered as biocides for use on fiber
glass duct board or fiber glass lined ducts, so it is important to
determine if sections of your system contain these materials before
permitting the application of any biocide.
In the meantime...
Before allowing a service provider to use a chemical biocide in your
duct work, the service provider should:
* Demonstrate visible evidence of microbial growth in your duct work.
Some service providers may attempt to convince you that your air
ducts are contaminated by demonstrating that the microorganisms found
in your home grow on a settling plate (i.e., petri dish). This is
inappropriate. Some microorganisms are always present in the air, and
some growth on a settling plate is normal. As noted earlier, only an
expert can positively identify a substance as biological growth and
lab analysis may be required for final confirmation. Other testing
methods are not reliable.
* Explain why biological growth cannot be removed by physical means,
such as brushing, and further growth prevented by controlling
If you decide to permit the use of a biocide, the service provider
* Show you the biocide label, which will describe its range of approved
* Apply the biocide only to un-insulated areas of the duct system after
proper cleaning, if necessary to reduce the chances for regrowth of
* Always use the product strictly according to its label instructions.
While some low toxicity products may be legally applied while occupants
of the home are present, you may wish to consider leaving the premises
while the biocide is being applied as an added precaution.
Do sealants prevent the release of dust and dirt particles into the air?
Manufacturers of products marketed to coat and seal duct surfaces claim
that these sealants prevent dust and dirt particles inside air ducts
from being released into the air. As with biocides, a sealant is often
applied by spraying it into the operating duct system. Laboratory tests
indicate that materials introduced in this manner tend not to completely
coat the duct surface. Application of sealants may also affect the
acoustical (noise) and fire retarding characteristics of fiber glass
lined or constructed ducts and may invalidate the manufacturer's
Questions about the safety, effectiveness and overall desirability of
sealants remain. For example, little is known about the potential
toxicity of these products under typical use conditions or in the event
they catch fire.
In addition, sealants have yet to be evaluated for their resistance to
deterioration over time which could add particles to the duct air.
In the meantime...
Most organizations concerned with duct cleaning, including EPA, NADCA,
NAIMA, and the Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors' National
Association (SMACNA) do not currently recommend the routine use of
sealants in any type of duct. Instances when the use of sealants may be
appropriate include the repair of damaged fiber glass insulation or when
combating fire damage within ducts. Sealants should never be used on wet
duct liner, to cover actively growing mold, or to cover debris in the
ducts, and should only be applied after cleaning according to NADCA or
other appropriate guidelines or standards.
To Learn More About Indoor Air Quality
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Office of Radiation and Indoor Air
Indoor Environments Division
(6604J) 401 M St., S.W.
Washington, DC 20460
(202) 564-9370
(202) 565-2038 (fax)
World Wide Web Site:
Indoor Air Quality Information Clearinghouse (IAQ INFO)
P.O. Box 37133
Washington, DC 20013-7133
1 (800) 438-4318
(202) 484-1307
Useful EPA publications available free of charge from either location
The Inside Story: A Guide to Indoor Air Quality
Indoor Air Pollution: An Introduction for Health Professionals
Residential Air Cleaning Devices: A Summary of Available Information
Consumer Research Council (CRC) IAQ Checklist
P.O. Box 12099
Washington, DC 20005-0999
Ask for: How Healthy Is The Air In Your Home?
(Free. Send a self-addressed, stamped standard size business
To Learn More About Air Duct Cleaning
National Air Duct Cleaners Association (NADCA)
1518 K Street, NW Suite 503
Washington, DC 20005
(202) 737-2926
Ask for: Introduction to HVAC (Heating, Ventilating, and Air
Conditioning) System Cleaning Services (Although intended for commercial
customers, information can be useful to consumers.)
North American Insulation Manufacturers Association (NAIMA)
44 Canal Center Plaza,
Suite 310
Alexandria, VA 22314
(703) 684-0084
Ask for: Cleaning Fibrous Glass Insulated Air Duct Systems; Recommended
Other Useful Resources
For a free list of state and local consumer protection agencies and
Better Business Bureaus:
Consumer's Resource Handbook
Consumer Information Center
Pueblo, CO 81009
For Information on Antimicrobial Biocides:
National Antimicrobial Information Network (NAIN)
1 (800) 447-6349.
Consumer Checklist
Learn as much as possible about air duct cleaning before you decide to
have your ducts cleaned by reading this guidance and contacting the
sources of information provided.
Consider other possible sources of indoor air pollution first if you
suspect an indoor air quality problem exists in your home.
Have your air ducts cleaned if they are visibly contaminated with
substantial mold growth, pests or vermin, or are clogged with
substantial deposits of dust or debris.
Ask the service provider to show you any mold or other biological
contamination they say exists. Get laboratory confirmation of mold
growth or decide to rely on your own judgement and common sense in
evaluating apparent mold growth.
Get estimates from at least three service providers.
Check references.
Ask the service provider whether he/she holds any relevant state
licenses. As of 1996, the following states require air duct cleaners to
hold special licenses: Arizona, Arkansas, California, Florida, Georgia,
Michigan and Texas. Other states may also require licenses.
Insist that the service provider give you knowledgeable and complete
answers to your questions.
Find out whether your ducts are made of sheet metal, flex duct, or
constructed of fiber glass duct board or lined with fiber glass since
the methods of cleaning vary depending on duct type. Remember, a
combination of these elements may be present.
Permit the application of biocides in your ducts only if necessary to
control mold growth and only after assuring yourself that the product
will be applied strictly according to label directions. As a precaution,
you and your pets should leave the premises during application.
Do not permit the use of sealants except under unusual circumstances
where other alternatives are not feasible.
Make sure the service provider follows the National Air Duct Cleaning
Association's (NADCA) standards and, if the ducts are constructed of
flex duct, duct board, or lined with fiber glass, the guidelines of the
North American Insulation Manufacturers Association (NAIMA).
Commit to a preventive maintenance program of yearly inspections of your
heating and cooling system, regular filter changes, and steps to prevent
moisture contamination.

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